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This document describes the complete rules for playing a game of the Universal Fighting System (UFS). 

It is not intended for players wishing to learn how to play; it is a technical document to be used primarily as a reference for handling advanced interactions.

This document overrides any and all rules materials previously released for UFS.


This is a living document, and will undergo updates on an as-needed basis. Version history:

v0.2 - Initial public release (BETA) 4/16/15
v0.3 - Minor updates (BETA) 7/9/15
v0.4 - Minor updates (BETA) 6/7/2016


TABLE OF CONTENTS

A. General Rules
	A.1 Objective of the Game
	A.2 Deck Construction
	A.3 Additional Rules
B. Card Types and Properties
	B.1 Characters
	B.2 Attacks
	B.3 Actions
	B.4 Assets
	B.5 Foundations
C. Card States
	C.1 Ready and Committed
	C.2 Public, Private and Unknown
	C.3 Valued and Valueless
D. Game Zones
	D.1 General
	D.2 Public Zones
	D.3 Private Zones
	D.4 Unknown Zones
E. Gameplay Basics
	E.1  Starting the Game
	E.2 Pause Conditions
	E.3 Making a Control Check
	E.4 Playing a Card or Ability
F. Turn Sequence
	F.1 Ready Phase
	F.2 Combat Phase
	F.3 End Phase
G. Attack Sequence
	G.1 Enhance Step
	G.2 Block Step
	G.3 Damage Step
	G.4 Attack Resolution
	G.5 Additional Rules
H. Abilities
	H.1 Played Abilities - Construction
	H.2 Played Abilities - Types
	H.3 Played Abilities - Restrictions
	H.4 Played Abilities - Costs
	H.5 Played Abilities - General
I. Keywords
	I.1 Keyword Traits
	I.2 Keyword Abilities - General
	I.3 Keyword Abilities - Text
J. Effects
	J.1 Effects - General
	J.2 Effect States
	J.3 Effect Classes
	J.4 Referencing Values
	J.5 Interacting With Cards
K. Instruction Glossary
	K.1 Conflict Resolution
	K.2 Implications
	K.3 Effect Limitations
	K.4 Definitions
L. Miscellaneous
	L.1 The Infinity Symbol
	L.2 Alternate Format Rules





A. General Rules

A.1 Objective of the Game
	Players can win a game of UFS in either of two ways:

	A.1.1 If a player's opponent has 0 or less vitality, that player wins the game.
	A.1.2 If a player's opponent is unable to cycle their deck (see E.2.2), that player wins the game.

A.2 Deck Construction
	The following rules apply to a standard game of UFS. For deck construction rules for alternate formats, see L.2.

	A.2.1 A player's deck must contain at least 60 cards, including their starting character.
	A.2.2 No more than four copies of a card with a given name are allowed in the same deck.
		Note: See B.6.1 for more information on card names.

A.3 Additional Rules
	A.3.1 All cards should be played using their official text posted in the Rules Q+A forum (http://forums.jascogames.com/forums/forumdisplay.php?12-Rules-Q-amp-A).
	A.3.2 Cards cannot change ownership in the course of gameplay.





B. Card Types and Properties

B.1 Characters
	B.1.1 Characters use a distinct card frame from the other four types, with the name at the top. 
	B.1.2 Characters have some properties that are unique to this card type.
		B.1.2.1 Hand Size: The number on the "cards" symbol.
		B.1.2.2 Maximum Vitality: The number on the "first aid" symbol.
		B.1.2.3 Vital Statistics: The values in the section on the lower right side. These include a character's Gender (G), Height (Ht), Weight (Wt) and Blood Type (Bt).
			B.1.2.3.1 These values may be question mark(s). (see J.4.4)

B.2 Attacks
	B.2.1 Attacks have an orange card frame.
	B.2.2 Attacks have some properties that are unique to this card type.
		B.2.2.1 Attack Zone: The location of the "x" mark in the zone symbol on the middle right side of the card. This designates whether it is a high, mid or low attack.
			B.2.2.1.1 Any references to an attack's "zone" are referring to this property (not the zone of the block in B.6.3).
		B.2.2.2 Speed: The number inside the zone symbol on the middle right side of the card.
		B.2.2.3 Damage: The number inside the "explosion" symbol on the middle right side of the card.

B.3 Actions
	B.3.1 Actions have a blue card frame.

B.4 Assets
	B.4.1 Assets have a green card frame.

B.5 Foundations
	B.5.1 Foundations have a gray card frame.

B.6 Common Properties
	The following properties are common to all card types.

	B.6.1 Card Name: Located at the top of character cards, or on the left side of all other cards.
		B.6.1.1 For non-character cards, any dots next to the card name are treated as part of the name for all purposes.
		B.6.1.2 For character cards, dots next to the card name indicate the character version.
			B.6.1.2.1 These dots are treated as part of the card name for deck construction purposes, but are not part of the card's name for gameplay purposes.
	
	B.6.2 Difficulty: Located in the upper left corner.
	
	B.6.3 Block Zone (optional): The location of the "x" mark in the zone symbol in the upper right corner of the card, if there is one.
	
	B.6.4 Block Modifier (optional): The number inside the zone symbol in the upper right corner of the card, if there is one.
	
	B.6.5 Text Box: Located in the bottom half of the card.
		B.6.5.1 Keyword Line (optional): Bolded or italicized terms at the top of the text box. (see I. Keywords)
	
	B.6.6 Resource Symbols: Located above the text box.
	
	B.6.7 Control: The number inside the swirl symbol in the lower right corner of the card.
	
	B.6.8 Universe Logo: Located in the bottom left corner of a card. This designates the license or property that the card falls under, and may be referenced by effects.
		B.6.8.1 If two different printings of a card have different Universe Logos, all versions of the card are considered to have the most recent version's Logo.
	
	B.6.9 Watermark: Part of the text box background for non-character cards, or above the vital statistics on character cards.
		B.6.9.1 The watermark has no impact on gameplay. It is used only to determine legality in various organized play formats.
	
	B.6.10 Collector's Info and Legal Text: Located below the text box.
		B.6.10.1 This information has no impact on gameplay.





C. Card States

C.1 Ready and Committed
	A card in the staging area, momentum or card pool can be either ready or committed. It is not possible to be in both states at once.

	C.1.1 A ready card is designated by being in normal, portrait orientation.
	C.1.2 A committed card is designated by being turned sideways 90 degrees, in landscape orientation.
	C.1.3 To ready a card (as a verb) is to change it from being committed to being ready. Readied cards cannot be readied.
	C.1.4 To commit a card (as a verb) is to change it from being ready to being committed. Committed cards cannot be committed.

C.2 Public, Private and Unknown
	A card may be either public, private or unknown. This defines which (if any) players may look at the face side of the card.

	C.2.1 A public card may be looked at by either player at either time.
		C.2.1.1 A face up or revealed card in any zone is public.
		C.2.1.2 If an effect reveals private or unknown cards, those cards are temporarily public (see K.5.1).

	C.2.2 A private card may only be looked at by the player controlling it.
		C.2.2.1 Cards in a player's hand, and face down cards in the staging area, are private.
		C.2.2.2 If an effect allows a player to look at unknown cards, those cards are temporarily private.

	C.2.3 An unknown card may not be looked at by either player.
		C.2.3.1 Face down cards in any zone other than the staging area are unknown.

C.3 Valued and Valueless
	A card may either be valued or valueless. This defines whether or not the card has properties that may be referenced in gameplay.

	C.3.1 Any card that is either public, or in a public zone, is valued.

	C.3.2 Any card that is not valued, is valueless.

	EXAMPLE - Valued and valueless: Cards in the discard pile are valued, as are cards in the staging area (including face down cards), card pool (including face down cards), or any face up card in the momentum. Face down cards in the momentum or deck, or the private cards in a player's hand, are valueless.

	C.3.3 To determine the values and properties of a valued card, apply the pertinent values, properties and effects in the following order, or "layers":
		
		C.3.3.1 Layer 0 - The printed values and properties of the card.
			Note: These are the values physically printed, in ink, on the card. No rule or effect can change a card's printed values.
			Note: Face down cards do not have any printed values.
		
		C.3.3.2 Layer 1 - Values and properties that are being set by a copying effect. (see J.3.4.1)
			C.3.3.2.1 If a card has multiple effects that copy values from another card, the active player applies their effects in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player applies their effects in the other of their choosing.
		
		C.3.3.3 Layer 2 - Values and properties that are being set by a non-copying definition effect. (see J.3.4)
			C.3.3.2.1 If a card has multiple non-copying definition effects being applied to it, the active player applies their effects in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player applies their effects in the other of their choosing.
			C.3.3.2.2 The values and properties of a card as calculated through layer 2 are the card's "base values".
				C.3.3.2.2.1 If the base attack zone of a card would be "null" or non-existant, it is mid instead.
				Note: If the base block zone of a card is null or non-existant, it stays as such and simply does not have a block.
		
		C.3.3.4 Layer 3 - Current State
			The current state of a card is the "top" abstract layer, and contains the values and properties of a card as they are modified over time by various effects. Any modification to a card that does not apply in layers 0 through 2 will be applied to its current state.
			C.3.3.4.1 A card gains a new current state upon becoming valued, or entering the transitional zone in the course of being played.
			C.3.3.4.2 This current state is maintained until it is refreshed (see C.3.3.4.4). The following events will cause a card's current state to be refreshed.
				C.3.3.4.2.1 The turn ends
				C.3.3.4.2.2 It changes game zones or publicity
				C.3.3.4.2.3 In the case of an attack, it resolves or is aborted
				C.3.3.4.2.4 In the case of a block, the attack it was played during resolves or is aborted
				Note: Upon attempting to play a card, even if it has an existing current state, that current state will still be replaced by a new one as per C.3.3.4.1. This is slightly differently than a refresh, notably with respect to C.3.3.4.4.1.
			C.3.3.4.3 Once an effect has applied a modification to a card's current state, that modification cannot be re-applied, un-applied or otherwise changed until the current state is refreshed.
			C.3.3.4.4 When a card's current state is created or refreshed, its initial properties and values are equal to the card's base values. Then apply all pertinent modifier effects (see J.3.3).
				C.3.3.4.4.1 In the case of a refresh, the reverting of the card to its base values does not create any game events.
				C.3.3.4.4.2 In the case of a refresh, any effect that is re-applied to the refreshed current state, that had been applied to that current state prior to the refresh, will not create a game event.
					C.3.3.4.4.2.1 For such an effect that adds an ability to a card, that ability retains its history from before the refresh, including how many times it has been played if applicable.
 			C.3.3.4.5 If, while a card has a current state, the execution, application or expiration of some effect causes a change in the card's base values, update only the affected values or properties of the current state to be equal to that of the new base value.

		EXAMPLE - Current State basics: Player B plays a Mega Buster with no effects applied to it. It gains a current state, which is a 4 difficulty, 4 speed, 4 damage mid attack with the ranged keyword trait (among other things). After it is played, they use an ability "R Commit: After you play an attack, it gets +2 speed." The current state is now a 4 difficulty, 6 speed, 4 damage mid attack with the ranged keyword trait. His opponent uses the ability "E: Your opponent's attack gets -1 speed." Now the current state is 5 speed, with the rest remaining the same. Neither of those speed modifications will be applied again. He uses an ability "E: Your attack gets +1 damage and Stun: 1". Now the current state is a 5 speed, 5 damage mid attack with the keywords ranged and Stun: 1. No other modifications are made, the attack gets blocked and then resolves. The current state now refreshes, and the Mega Buster returns to being a 4 difficulty, 4 speed mid attack with 4 damage and the ranged keyword only.
		EXAMPLE - Re-application of effects not creating a game event: Player A has created a detached modification effect that reads "Your high attacks get -2 difficulty for the rest of this turn." She has a response ability on one of her foundations that reads "R: After the difficulty of 1 of your attacks is modified, gain 1 vitality." She plays a high attack, which gets -2 difficulty applied to its new current state as soon as it enters the transitional zone. This constitutes a game event in which the difficulty of her attack was modified, so she responds with her foundation's ability and gains 1 vitality. When that same attack resolves, its current state will be refreshed. Since the detached effect is still active and still applicable, the refreshed current state will also have -2 difficulty applied to it by the same effect that did so prior. However, as per C.3.3.4.4.2, this re-application will not create a game event and therefore she may not respond with her foundation's ability a second time.
		EXAMPLE - Current state upon entering desperation: Player B's opponent activated Breaker: 1 after blocking his prior attack. For his next attack, he wishes to play an attack whose printed difficulty is 5, but also has Desperation: 3, which is a definition effect. Player B is not in desperation however, so the card's base difficulty is 5, and upon receiving a current state when it enters the transitional zone, it will get +1 difficulty from the Breaker and have a current state of 6 difficulty. During the attack, he pays vitality for a cost, which puts him in desperation. The card's base difficulty is now changed to 3. As per rule C.3.3.4.5, the difficulty of the attack's current state is changed to 3. The +1 difficulty from the Breaker will not be applied again.
		
	C.3.4 The speed, damage, and attack zone of an attack card cannot be modified unless the attack is currently in the process of being played, undergoing an attack sequence (see G. Attack Sequence), or is on the attack stack (see F.2.3).	




					
D. Game Zones

D.1 General
	D.1.1 Each player has an instance of each of these game zones.
	D.1.2 All cards enter game zones in the ready state by default.

D.2 Public Zones
	Cards in these zones are face up, public cards by default.

	D.2.1 Card Pool
		Cards a player plays normally go into that player's card pool.
		D.2.1.1 Cards are added to the card pool left to right.
			Note: In practice, players may add cards to their card pool from right to left. However, for the purposes of these rules, it is assumed they are being added left to right. A player adding cards right to left must adjust pertinent rules accordingly.
		D.2.1.2 The order of the cards in the card pool may not be changed.	
	
	D.2.2 Staging Area / Attachment Zone
	A player's characters, foundations and assets reside in their staging area, as well as any cards attached to them.
		D.2.2.1 Cards in a player's staging area may be arranged as that player wishes, however their presence, state (ready or committed), and any attached cards must be clear to both players.
		D.2.2.2 Face down cards in the staging area are foundations. Face down cards have no other base values by default.
			Note: Effects that refer to foundations also refer to face down cards in the staging area.
		D.2.2.3 Some effects will "attach" a card to another card in a player's staging area, as will playing a character card with the same name as the starting character (see F.3.2). In addition to being in the staging area, those cards reside in that player's attachment zone.
			Note: Effects that refer to cards in the staging area also refer to cards in the attachment zone (see K.2.6).
			D.2.2.3.1 Each card in the attachment zone is "attached", or assigned to a card in that player's staging area. Each card in the attachment zone should be kept near or under the card it is attached to, such that it is clear to both players.
			D.2.2.3.2 Whenever a card is removed from the staging area, any cards attached to it are discarded.
			D.2.2.3.3 Cards in the attachment zone share the same state (ready or committed) as the card they are attached to and vice versa. For example, if a starting character card is committed, any cards attached to it are also committed. Committed cards can not use their abilities unless otherwise stated (see H.5.1)
			D.2.2.3.4 Face up attached cards may improve upon the cards they are attached to. A player's starting character gains the abilities and resource symbols of each different version of the character attached to it (see B.6.1.2).
			Example - Multiple characters: Player B's starting character is *Mega Man*, and she has an additional copy of *Mega Man* and two copies of **Mega Man** in her staging area. Her starting character gains one set of abilities and resource symbols - those on **Mega Man** - and nothing more from the extra copies of each version.
			D.2.2.3.5 Attached cards cannot be used to pay for costs or be committed to pass checks (see E.3.5.2.3.2) except for where specifically stated. Abiliies on attached cards cannot be played unless specifically stated (ie. Battlefist).
			D.2.2.3.6 Attached cards can be committed, destroyed, or removed from the staging area by effects that refer to them or their card type when found in the staging area.

	D.2.3 Discard Pile
		The discard pile contains cards that have been destroyed, checked or otherwise discarded.
		D.2.3.1 The discard pile should be kept in a single face up pile.
		D.2.3.2 The order of cards in the discard pile cannot be changed.
		D.2.3.3 When a card is added to the discard pile, add it to the top of the pile.
			D.2.3.3.1 If multiple cards are added to a player's discard pile at the same time, that player chooses what order to place them in.

	D.2.4 Removed from Game
		The removed from game zone holds cards that have been taken out of the current game due to mulligans, cycling, or some cost or effect.
			Note: The removed from game zone is still a game zone. Effects that search all game zones may search the removed from game zone.

	D.2.5 Transitional Zone
		The transitional zone is an abstract zone that temporarily stores cards that are in transit between zones.
		D.2.5.1 Whenever a card moves from one zone to the other, it passes through the transitional zone.
			D.2.5.1.1 If the card is not in the process of being played, and was valued in its original zone, it retains its current state while in the transitional zone. Its current state will refresh upon reaching its destination zone, if it is still valued in that zone.
			D.2.5.1.2 If the card was private or unknown in its original zone, and is moving to a zone where it will be private or unknown, it remains private (if private in either the original or destination zone) or unknown (otherwise) while in the transitional zone.
			D.2.5.1.3 For the purposes of rules, effects and game events that reference a zone change, moving to and from the transitional zone does not count as a zone change in and of itself. No zone change has occurred until the card reaches its destination zone.
				Note: In certain cases (such as the reversal keyword) a card could go from the card pool, to the transitional zone, and then back to the card pool due to the process of playing the card. This is still a zone change despite the origin and destination zones being the same, as the card still passed through the transitional zone.
					 
D.3 Private Zones
	Cards in these zones are held by the player, or set aside face down. They are private by default.
	
	D.3.1 Hand
		The hand contains the cards a player has not played yet.
		D.3.1.1 A player may have any number of cards in their hand.
			D.3.1.1.1 Even if there are 0 cards in a player's hand, they still have a hand and may "discard their hand" (0 cards) to pay a cost.
		D.3.1.2 Players may arrange their hands in any way they choose. 
		D.3.1.3 The number of cards in each player's hand is public knowledge.

D.4 Unknown Zones
	Cards in these zones are face down, unknown cards by default.	
	
	D.4.1 Deck
		The player's deck contains the cards that they may draw or use for control checks over the course of a game.
		D.4.1.1 The order of the cards in a player's deck cannot be changed.
			D.4.1.1.1 If multiple cards are added to a player's deck at the same time, that player chooses what order to place them in.
		D.4.1.2 The number of cards in each player's deck is public knowledge.

	D.4.2 Momentum
		A player's momentum is a set of cards kept next to their character.
		D.4.2.1 The cards in a player's momentum must be arranged in a "bar", or some similarly ordered fashion.
			D.4.2.1.1 They may not be distinguishable from each other in any way besides order of placement.
		D.4.2.2 When a player adds a card to their momentum, they may add it at any spot in the order.
		D.4.2.3 When a player discards or removes card(s) from their momentum, they may choose any card(s) they wish regardless of order.
		D.4.2.4 Other than adding and removing cards, the order of momentum may not be changed.





E. Gameplay Basics

E.1  Starting the Game
	Steps E.1.1 through E.1.7 take place before the game begins. No game events occur during this time.
	
	E.1.1 Both players search their deck for a character card and place it face down in front of them. Then both players reveal their characters simultaneously. These will be the players' starting characters.
		E.1.1.1 In a tournament setting at the start of Game 1, players must search for the character they signed up with.
	
	E.1.2 Players shuffle their decks until the cards are sufficiently randomized. They may shuffle or cut their opponent's deck as well.
	
	E.1.3 Use an agreed-upon random method (such as rolling dice or flipping a coin) to decide which player chooses who gets the first turn ("going first").
		E.1.3.1 If playing a series of games, the player who lost the previous game gets to choose who goes first.
	
	E.1.4 Players add their starting characters to their staging areas. The player going first commits their character.
	
	E.1.5 Players set their vitality (kept track of with pen and paper, or some other means) to their character's maximum vitality.
	
	E.1.6 Players draw a number of cards equal to their character's hand size.
	
	E.1.7 Starting with the player going first, each player may choose to remove their hand from the game and draw cards equal to their character's hand size a second time. This is referred to as taking a mulligan.
	
	E.1.8 The game begins. The player going first skips the Ready Phase of their first turn.
	
E.2 Pause Conditions
	If any of the following items are true, the game pauses until the described action is taken. If multiple of the following items are true at the same time, address them in order.
	
	E.2.1 A player at 0 or less vitality loses the game.
	
	E.2.2 A player with no cards remaining in their deck must cycle it. To cycle the deck, shuffle the discard pile, then remove the top 10 cards of this new deck from the game.
		E.2.2.1 If a player is unable to complete a cycle (they have no cards left in their deck and 10 or fewer cards in their discard pile), that player loses the game.
	
	E.2.3 Any character card in a player's staging area, or in their transitional zone en route to their staging area, that does not have the same name as their starting character, is discarded.
	
	E.2.4 Any card with the [Character Name] Only keyword that is in a player's staging area, in their transitional zone en route to their staging area, in their card pool, or in their transitional zone en route to their card pool, is discarded unless that player's starting character is [Character Name].
	
	E.2.5 If there is more than one card with the Terrain keyword in both staging areas combined, destroy the one that has been in a staging area while having the Terrain keyword for longer.
		E.2.5.1 If the Terrains were added or otherwise existed in the staging areas for the same length of time, the active player chooses which one to destroy.
	
	E.2.6 If there are two or more copies of a card with the Unique keyword in a player's staging area, that player destroys one of the copies.

	E.2.7 If there is an attack or action card in a player's staging area that is not attached to another card, discard it.

E.3 Making a Control Check
	The following describes the process of making a control check. In card text, "check" may be used as a shorthand for "Control Check"

	E.3.1 Discard the top card of your deck. The control value of this card is the starting value of the control check.
		E.3.1.1 This starting value is also the number you checked for the purposes of game events and effects.
		E.3.1.2 Some effects may modify the value of the control check. These do not affect the starting value, only the final value.

	E.3.2 The final value of the control check is now set.

	E.3.3 If an effect caused a re-check, begin the control check process again, starting from E.3.1.
		E.3.3.1 Re-checks may not occur for control checks that are themselves re-checks.

	E.3.4 If the control check was not being made against a difficulty, the process is now complete.

	E.3.5 If the control check was being made against a difficulty: 
		E.3.5.1 If the final value is greater than or equal to the difficulty needed, the control check passes.
		E.3.5.2 If the final value is less than the difficulty needed, decide whether or not they will commit cards to pass the control check.
			E.3.5.2.1 You cannot choose to commit cards unless you are able to complete the steps in E.3.5.2.3.
			E.3.5.2.2 If you decide not to commit cards, the control check fails.
			3.5.2.3 If you decide to commit cards:
				E.3.5.2.3.1 Determine the number of cards needed by subtracting the final value of the control check from the difficulty needed.
				E.3.5.2.3.2 Commit character and/or foundation cards in your staging area only until you have committed at least that many cards. Committing these cards is a single game event.
					Note: "Only until" means that you may not commit additional cards if you have already met or exceeded (i.e. due to effects) the required number.

	E.3.6 The process is now complete.

E.4 Playing a Card or Ability
	The following describes the process of playing a card or an ability. In the case of an action card, both the card and the chosen ability are played in one process.

	E.4.1 Announce which card or ability you are going to play.
		E.4.1.1 You may not attempt to play a card or ability that you cannot pay the costs for (excluding control checks).
		E.4.1.2 You may not attempt to play a card unless it has a resource symbol that is present on both your character and on every card in your card pool that has resource symbols.

	E.4.2 If you are playing a card, add it to the transitional zone.
		E.4.2.1 If, after gaining a new current state (see C.3.3.4), the card no longer meets the requirements in E.4.1.2, discard it from the transitional zone and abort this process.

	E.4.3 Starting at this time, all game events that would occur are suspended until E.4.5

	E.4.4 Pay all costs associated with the card or ability, excluding control checks.
		E.4.4.1 If playing an ability, pay the printed costs first, in order as they are written on the card.
		E.4.4.2 Then pay any costs added by effects, in the order of your choosing.

	E.4.5 At this time, all game events that would have occurred during E.4.4 (but were suspeded by E.4.3) occur now as a single event.

	E.4.6 If you are attempting to play a card, determine the total difficulty. 
		E.4.6.1 If you are not playing the card as a block, start with the difficulty of the card. Otherwise, start with the value given in G.2.1.3.2.
		E.4.6.2 Then, add 1 for each card in your card pool. The result is the total difficulty.
			E.4.6.2.1 The addition of 1 for each card in the card pool is called "progressive difficulty". (see K.4.14 and K.4.15)

	E.4.7 If you are attempting to play a card, make a control check against the total difficulty.
		E.4.7.2 If the control check fails, discard the card from the transitional zone and abort this process.

	E.4.8 If the card or ability has any other control check costs associated with it, make control check(s) against the difficulty value(s) required.
		E.4.8.1 If playing an ability, start with any control check costs among its printed costs, in order as they are written on the card.
		E.4.8.2 Then make the control checks for any other control check costs added by effects, in the order of your choosing.
		E.4.8.3 If any of these control checks fail, discard the card (if a card is being played) from the transitional zone and abort this process.

	E.4.9 If you are attempting to play a card, add it to your card pool to the right of all other cards.

	E.4.10 The card or ability has now been played successfully.
		E.4.10.1 If this process was aborted as per E.4.2.1, E.4.7.1 or E.4.8.3, the attempt to play the card or ability has failed.





F. Turn Sequence
	The following describes the phases and steps that comprise a turn. Players must follow these in order on each of their turns. The player whose turn it is is the "active player". The other player is the "inactive player".

F.1 Ready Phase
	The Ready Phase is composed of the Ready Step, Review Step and Draw Step. These are done in order.

	F.1.1 Ready Step - The active player readies all of their committed cards. This is not optional.
	F.1.2 Review Step - The active player may choose to discard 1 card from their hand. This is called "reviewing" a card.
	F.1.3 Draw Step - The active player draws cards until they have a number of cards in their hand greater than or equal to their hand size. This is not optional. 
		Note: If a player already has enough cards in their hand at the start of their Draw Step, they will not draw any cards.
		F.1.3.1 The drawing of these cards occurs as a single event.

F.2 Combat Phase
	
	F.2.1 During the Combat Phase, the active player takes a series of acts known as forms. A form may only be played if all of these things are true:
		F.2.1.1 There are no cards or abilities in the process of being played or executing.
		F.2.1.2 There are no response windows open. (see H.2.3.2)
		F.2.1.3 The game is not in an attack sequence. (see G. Attack Sequence)
		F.2.1.4 There are no pending attacks. (see F.2.3)
	
	F.2.2 The following acts are forms:
		F.2.2.1 Attempt to play any non-action card, or a form ability on an action card, from the hand.
			F.2.2.1.1 If a player attempts to play a card as a form (including a form ability on an action card), and that attempt fails, their Combat Phase ends and the game proceeds to the End Phase.
		F.2.2.2 Attempt to play a form ability.
		F.2.2.3 Pass on any further forms, and proceed to the End Phase.
			F.2.2.3 If a player passes without attempting to play a card from their hand as a form, they must attempt to play at least one card from their hand as a form during their next turn's Combat Phase.

	F.2.3 Whenever an attack is played, it is added to an abstract list called the "attack stack".
		Note: This is not a game zone. It has no impact on play other than keeping track of which attacks occur in which order should there be multiple attacks pending at once.
		F.2.3.1 There is only one attack stack, shared by both players.
		F.2.3.2 Attacks on the attack stack are called "pending attacks".
		F.2.3.3 Whenever a form could otherwise be played, (F.2.1.1 through F.2.1.3 are all true) enter an attack sequence for the pending attack most recently added to the attack stack, and remove it from the stack.
		F.2.3.4 If a pending attack leaves the card pool, remove it from the attack stack.
		F.2.3.5 If more than one attack is to be added to the attack stack at the same time, add them starting with the rightmost attack in the card pool and moving left.
			Note: This means that when that group of attacks begin to initiate attack sequences, they will occur in order from left to right, since the leftmost attack was added last.			
		
		EXAMPLE - Normal attack play: Player B plays an attack as a form. It goes on the attack stack, but is removed and enters its attack sequence as soon as any abilities and effects are done (F.2.1.1 and F.2.1.2 are fulfilled).
		EXAMPLE - Complex attack plays: Player A has an attack with Multiple: 2, and uses that ability adding two attacks to the stack. The right copy goes on the stack first, then the left copy goes "on top" of it. Player B blocks that attack and plays an attack as a reversal to it, which goes on the stack after / "on top" of the two multiple copies. Before another form can be played, Player B's reversal will enter its attack sequence, followed by the left multiple copy, and then the right multiple copy.
		
F.3 End Phase

	F.3.1 During the End Phase, players "clear" their card pools, moving all cards in them to other zones as described below. 
		F.3.1.1 The active player clears their card pool first, then the inactive player.
		F.3.1.2 Cards are cleared from the card pool in right to left order.

	F.3.2 When clearing a card from the card pool:
		F.3.2.1 Any foundation, asset, or character that was played this turn is added to the player's staging area. A character card will be added to the attachment zone and attached to the starting character if it shares the same name and game license as that starting character (see D.2.2.3 and E.2.3).
			Note: This does not include cards of these types that were played as blocks. (see G.2.1.3.3.1)
		F.3.2.2 Any attack that dealt damage may be added to the player's momentum, or discarded, at the player's choosing.
		F.3.2.3 All cards that do not match F.3.2.1 or F.3.2.2 are discarded.

	F.3.3 After both card pools have been cleared, the active player's turn ends and the other player begins their turn.

F.4 Additional Rules

	F.4.1 Phases, steps and turns cannot begin or end while there are effects being executed or a response window is open. 
		F.4.1.1 This includes the steps of an attack sequence. (see G. Attack Sequence)

	F.4.2 It is possible for abilities to be played or effects or game events to occur in between phases or steps, but not in between turns.
		EXAMPLE - Effect between phases: Player A has an effect that reads "After the Ready Phase, draw 1 card." This effect executes in neither the Ready Phase nor the Combat Phase, but in between them. If Player B has a card with an ability "R: After your opponent draws 1 or more cards during the Combat Phase, draw 1 card.", it could not be played in response to the execution of Player A's effect.
		EXAMPLE - Effect before a step: Player B has an effect that reads "After you play an attack, gain 1 vitality." This effect executes before the Enhance Step (See G.1) begins.





G. Attack Sequence
	The following describes the steps that occur during an attack sequence. The player whose attack it is will be referred to as the "attacker", and their opponent is the "defender".
	
G.1 Enhance Step
	
	G.1.1 Starting with the attacker, players alternate having priority to play an enhance ability. (see H.2.1) 
	G.1.2 When a player has priority, they may choose to either play an enhance ability or pass.
		Note: A player may play an enhance ability even if they passed when having priority previously.
		Note: If a player cannot play any enhance abilities, they must pass.
	G.1.3 When both players pass in succession, the Enhance Step ends.
	
G.2 Block Step

	G.2.1 The defender decides whether or not to attempt to block the attack.
		G.2.1.1 They cannot choose to attempt to block if they do not have a card that meets the conditions in G.2.1.3.1.
		G.2.1.2 If they decide not to attempt to block, or an effect causes the attack to be blocked, proceed to G.2.2.
		G.2.1.3 If they decide to attempt to block, follow these steps: 
			G.2.1.3.1 The defender must choose a card in their hand that meets the following conditions:
				G.2.1.3.1.1 If the attack's zone is low, the card must have a block zone of low or mid.
				G.2.1.3.1.2 If the attack's zone is high, the card must have a block zone of high or mid.
				G.2.1.3.1.3 If the attack's zone is mid, the card must have a block of any zone.
				G.2.1.3.1.4 The card must be able to be legally played as per E.4.1.1 and E.4.1.2.
			G.2.1.3.2 Determine the base difficulty of the block. This is equal to the block modifier of the chosen card, plus the speed of the attack.
			G.2.1.3.3 The defender attempts to play the chosen card.				
				G.2.1.3.3.1 Playing a card as a block does not count as "playing a (card type)". It does count as "playing a block", "playing a card", and "playing a (card type) card".
				EXAMPLE - Blocking with an attack card: Player A plays an attack card as a block that has the ability "R: After you play this card, look at the top card of your deck." He can play that ability, as well as the abilities "R: After you play an attack card as a block, it gets Breaker: 1", and "R Commit: After you play a block, change its zone to mid." But he -cannot- play "R: After you play an attack, gain 1 vitality.", and the attack -does not- go on the attack stack. He also cannot play "R Commit: After you block an attack, draw 1 card." at this time, since the attack does not become blocked until G.2.2.						

	G.2.2 Determine the block status of the attack.
		G.2.2.1 If the defender did not attempt to play a block, their attempt failed, or the block was cancelled, the attack is not blocked.
		G.2.2.2 If the defender played a block, and its block zone is the same as the attack zone of the attack, the attack is completely blocked.
		G.2.2.3 If the defender played a block, and its block zone is not the same as the attack zone of the attack, the attack is partially blocked.

G.3 Damage Step
	During this step, the attack may deal damage once to the defender. When a player is dealt damage, they lose that much vitality.

	G.3.1 If the attack was completely blocked, or its damage is zero or less, it deals no damage.
		Note: It is not possible to "deal 0 damage." An attack that deals no damage did not deal damage.
	G.3.2 If the attack was partially blocked, it deals an amount of damage equal to half its damage, rounded up.
	G.3.3 If the attack was not blocked, it deals damage equal to its damage.

G.4 Attack Resolution
	The attack has resolved and its attack sequence ends.

G.5 Additional Rules
	
	G.5.1 Entering an attack sequence does not cause the game to leave the current part of the turn sequence it is in. If an attack sequence begins during the Combat Phase, the game is still in the Combat Phase throughout the attack sequence.
	G.5.2 If an attack leaves the card pool or is turned face down during its attack sequence, but before the Damage Step, it becomes a dropped attack.
		G.5.2.1 If an attack is dropped, the attack sequence is aborted the next time either of these things occur:
			G.5.2.1.1 A player would receive priority to play an enhance.
			G.5.2.1.2 The attack sequence would move to a new step.
		Note: If an attack leaves the card pool, or is turned face down, after the Damage Step begins, complete the attack sequence as normal.





H. Abilities
	An ability is lines of text either printed in a card's text box, or granted to a card by a keyword or effect. Abilities may be either played abilities, or continuous abilities.

H.1 Played Abilities - Construction
	A played ability has several parts. For rules on how to play a played ability, see E.4.

	H.1.1 (Optional) A bold-faced restriction term.
	H.1.2 (Required) A single bold-faced letter (E, F or R) designating what type of played ability it is. 
	H.1.3 (Optional) Bracketed text describing additional restrictions.
	H.1.4 (Optional) A series of instructions that constitutes the cost to play the ability.
	H.1.5 (Required) A colon.
	H.1.6 (Optional) A phrase describing a point in time, ending in a comma. This is a response condition.
		H.1.6.1 Response conditions only appear in, and are a required part of, response (R) abilities.
	H.1.7 (Required) A series of instructions that constitute the immediate effect of the ability.

H.2 Played Abilities - Types
	
	H.2.1 Enhance abilities
		H.2.1.1 An ability with an "E" as its type designator is an enhance ability.
		H.2.1.2 Enhance abilities are played during the Enhance Step. See G.1.
		H.2.1.3 An enhance ability may only be played if it is on a ready foundation, asset or starting character in the staging area, an action card in the hand, or on the current attack.
		H.2.1.4 Each enhance ability may only be played once per Enhance Step.
			H.2.1.4.1 If an enhance ability has a control check cost, and the attempt to play it fails, it may not be attempted again during that Enhance Step.

	H.2.2 Form abilities
		H.2.2.1 An ability with an "F" as its type designator is a form ability.
		H.2.2.2 Form abilities are played during the Combat Phase. See F.2.2.
		H.2.2.3 A form ability may only be played if it is on a ready foundation, asset or starting character in the staging area, or on an action card in the hand.

	H.2.3 Response abilities
		H.2.3.1 An ability with an "R" as its type designator is a response ability.		
		H.2.3.2 Response abilities are played during a response window.
			H.2.3.2.1 A response window may be opened by either player at any time a game event occurs.
			H.2.3.2.2 If a response window is opened during the middle of an effect's execution, that execution is halted until the window closes.
			H.2.3.2.3 If a response window is opened during another response window, or the Enhance Step, the handling of that window or step is paused until this new response window closes.
			H.2.3.2.4 Once a response window is opened:
				H.2.3.2.4.1 Starting with the active player, players alternate having priority to play a response ability.
				H.2.3.2.4.2 When a player has priority, they may either play a valid response ability or pass.
					H.2.3.2.4.2.1 A valid response ability is one whose response condition (see H.1.6) matches the game event that the response window was opened in reaction to.
						Note: One game event may match several different response conditions.
						Example: Player A has a foundation with a response ability whose condition is "After you play an ability that gains vitality, ..." Player B has one whose condition is "After your opponent plays an enhance ability, ..." If player A plays the enhance ability "E Commit: Gain 2 vitality.", and either player opens a response window in reaction to this event, both player's responses will be valid since it is both an enhance ability, and an ability that gains vitality.
				H.2.3.2.4.3 When both players pass in succession, the response window closes.
			H.2.3.2.5 Once a response window is opened, it exists independent of other occurrences. The properties of the game event it was opened in reaction to cannot be changed, and the window cannot be closed until both players have passed priority.
		H.2.3.3 A response ability may only be played if it is on a ready foundation, asset or starting character in the staging area, an action card in the hand, or on the current attack (during an attack sequence).
		H.2.3.4 Each response ability may only be played once per response window.
			H.2.3.4.1 If a response ability has a control check cost, and the attempt to play it fails, it may not be attempted again during that response window.

H.3 Played Abilities - Restrictions
	Played abilities may have a number of restrictions on when and if they can be played. 

	H.3.1 Some restrictions appear in bold-faced text or as symbols preceding the type designation. These are:
		H.3.1.1 "First" - The ability must be the first action of its type played during the pertinent time frame.
			H.3.1.1.1 For forms, a First F may only be played if the player has done no other forms (including playing cards as forms) during the current Combat Phase.
			H.3.1.1.2 For enhances, a First E may only be played if the player has played no other enhance abilities during the current Enhance Step.
				Note: A player may pass any number of times and still play a First E, provided it is still the first enhance ability they play.
		H.3.1.2 "Combo" - The ability may not be played unless the conditions laid out in the card's Combo keyword ability are met. (see I.3.3)
			H.3.1.2.1 - Playing one of these abilities classifies as playing a combo ability.
			H.3.1.2.2 - Any reference to a combo ability that is not related to playing one, refers to the Combo keyword ability.
			Note: If a card does not have the combo keyword ability, played abilities with the combo restriction cannot be played.
		H.3.1.3 "Desperation" - The ability may only be played if the player is at less than half of their character's maximum vitality.
			H.3.1.3.1 - Playing one of these abilities classifies as playing a desperation ability.
			H.3.1.3.2 - Any reference to a desperation ability that is not related to playing one, refers to the Desperation keyword ability.
		H.3.1.4 Character's Name - The ability may only be played if the named character is the player's starting character.
			H.3.1.4.1 - These abilities are classified as character-specific abilities.
		H.3.1.5 Resource Symbol - The ability may only be played if the player's starting character has that resource symbol.
			H.3.1.5.1 - These abilities are classified as resource-only abilities.

	H.3.2 Some restrictions appear in brackets after the type designation, but before the cost.
		H.3.2.1 If the brackets contain the name of a game zone, the ability can only be played while the card is in that game zone.
			H.3.2.1.1 This also allows the ability to be played while the card is in that game zone, even if it normally could not be.
		H.3.2.2 Other than game zones, the brackets could contain:
			H.3.2.2.1 "Once per turn" - The ability may only be played once per turn.
			H.3.2.2.2 "Twice per turn" - The ability may only be played twice per turn.
			H.3.2.2.3 "Your turn" - The ability may only be played during the player's turn.
			H.3.2.2.4 "Your attack" - The ability may only be played during an attack sequence for one of the player's attacks.
			H.3.2.2.5 "Opponent's turn" - The ability may only be played during the player's opponent's turn.
			H.3.2.2.6 "Opponent's attack" - The ability may only be played during an attack sequence for one of the player's opponent's attacks.
			H.3.2.2.7 "Enhance Step" - The ability may only be played during the Enhance Step.

	H.3.3 In some cases, a restriction may appear at the end of a played ability's effect text. This text is not part of the effect. These restrictions can take one of two forms:
		H.3.3.1 "Only playable (condition)" - The ability may only be played if the condition is met.
		H.3.3.2 "Playable while committed" - The ability can be played even if the card it is on is committed (see H.5.1).
		H.3.3.3 "Playable by either player" - Both players may play this ability as if it were on one of their cards.
			Note: The owner of the ability / effect is the player who played it.
			Note: In the case of an enhance or response ability, this does not allow both players to play the ability in the same Enhance Step or response window. Once one player has played it, it may no longer be played by either player during that time frame.
		H.3.3.4 "Your opponent may (instructions) to cancel this ability" - After the ability is played, the opponent can choose to complete the specified instructions. If they do, the ability is cancelled.
			H.3.3.4.1 A variant of this reads "Your opponent may (instructions) to cancel this ability and destroy this card". In this case, if the opponent completes the instructions, the card is also destroyed.
			H.3.3.4.2 Completing these instructions is treated as a cost, not an effect.
			H.3.3.4.3 This decision is made after any fired effects are executed (see J.3.2) but before a response window may be opened in reaction to the ability being played.
			H.3.3.4.4 The cancellation (and possibly destruction) resulting from this is neither a cost nor an effect.

H.4 Played Abilities - Costs
	
	H.4.1 Certain shorthand terms may appear in an ability's cost. These stand for:
		H.4.1.1 "Commit" - "Commit this card"
		H.4.1.2 "Destroy" - "Destroy this card"
		H.4.1.3 "Remove" - "Remove this card from the game"
		H.4.1.4 "Flip" - "Turn this card face down"

	H.4.2 If a cost includes parentheses containing a number with a plus sign, this is a control check cost. A check must be passed against a difficulty equal to the number in the parentheses as part of the cost of playing the ability. (see E.4.8)
	
	H.4.3 If a cost includes committing a number of foundations, the player paying that cost may commit their starting character in place of one foundation.

	H.4.4 If there is an X in a played ability's cost, either:
		H.4.4.1 The value of X will be defined at the end of the effect text of the ability. In such a case, this definition is not part of the effect.
		H.4.4.2 If the above is not true, the player whose ability is it chooses any non-negative value for X when the ability is announced.

	Note: See K. Instruction Glossary for additional rules that may apply to costs.

H.5 Played Abilities - General
	H.5.1 Played abilities on committed cards cannot be played.			

H.6 Continuous Abilities
	An ability that is not played (it lacks the required elements in H.1) is a continuous ability. A continuous ability provides an attached effect to the card it is on. (see J.2.1)
	H.6.1 "Static effects" is a term generally used to describe effects generated from continuous abilities that are active for a period longer than a single effect execution, and while the card they are on is in a specific zone (see J.6).
	H.6.2 "Floating effects" is a term generally used to describe effects generated from continuous abilities that are active for a period longer than a single effect execution, that do not rely on the card they are on being in a specific zone, or effects generated from continuous abilities that execute at a time after the card they are found on changes zones (see J.7).





I. Keywords
	Keywords are terms that appear bolded or italicized at the top of a card's text box. Any card with a keyword on it is classified as a [name] card, where [name] is the name of that keyword. There are two types of keywords - keyword traits, and keywords that grant abilities.

I.1 Keyword Traits
	A keyword trait has no function other than to serve as an additional way to classify the card it is on. The following keywords are keyword traits:
	
	I.1.1 Ally
	I.1.2 Kick
	I.1.3 Punch
	I.1.4 Ranged
	I.1.5 Slam
	I.1.6 Taunt
	I.1.7 Weapon

I.2 Keyword Abilities - General
	
	I.2.1 The following keywords grant a linked ability to the card they are on. See I.3 for the text of these abilities and other rules associated with them.
		I.2.1.1 Breaker
		I.2.1.2 [Character Name] Only
		I.2.1.3 Combo
		I.2.1.4 Desperation
		I.2.1.5 Flash
		I.2.1.6 Multiple
		I.2.1.7 Powerful
		I.2.1.8 Reversal
		I.2.1.9 Safe
		I.2.1.10 Stun
		I.2.1.11 Terrain
		I.2.1.12 Throw
		I.2.1.13 Unique

	I.2.2 The ability granted by one of the keywords in I.2.1 is a keyword ability. It is classified as a [name] ability, where [name] is the name of the keyword granting it.

	I.2.2 A keyword ability is linked to the keyword that grants it. This means:
		I.2.2.1 If the keyword is removed, the linked keyword ability is removed as well.
		I.2.2.2 If a keyword ability is removed, the linked keyword is removed as well.
	
	I.2.3 Some of the keywords in I.2.1 will be succeeded by a colon with a number after it. This number is the rating of that keyword, and can be referenced by the linked ability.
		I.2.3.1 If an effect modifies the [name] rating of a card, where [name] is the name of a keyword, and the card has multiple instances of that keyword, the player whose card it is chooses one of the instances to receive the modification.

	I.2.4 Keywords other than [Character Name] Only may be preceded by [Character Name]. In these cases, the card only has the succeeding keyword if the player whose card it is has [Character Name] as their starting character.
		Note: This is different from the way character-specific played abilities (see H.3.1.4) function. Those abilities are still on the card, regardless of the player's character.

I.3 Keyword Abilities - Text

	I.3.1 Breaker
		I.3.1.1 Breaker grants the ability "R [Card Pool]: After you block with this card, the next card your opponent attempts to play this turn gets +X difficulty. X equals the rating of the Breaker keyword granting this ability."
			Note: This ability increases the difficulty of the card being played. That value may not factor into the difficulty of the check they must pass, i.e. in the case of blocking.

	I.3.2 [Character Name] Only
		I.3.2.1 [Character Name] Only grants the ability "This card cannot be played unless your starting character is [Character Name]."
			Note: [Character Name] Only cards also have a pause condition (see E.2.4) associated with them that prevent them from being in the card pool or staging area if the player is not using the named character.

	I.3.3 Combo
		I.3.3.1 The Combo keyword is always succeeded by "(requirement(s))", which are referenced by the linked ability.
		I.3.3.2 Combo grants the ability "Played abilities on this card that have a combo restriction may not be played unless the printed values of the card(s) immediately preceding this card in the card pool match the requirement(s) listed after the Combo keyword granting this ability, in order if applicable."
			Note: Because combo only checks the preceding cards' printed values, changing those values via effects will not change whether a combo-restricted ability can be played or not.

	I.3.4 Desperation
		I.3.4.1 Desperation grants the ability "While you are at less than half of your starting character's maximum vitality, this card's difficulty is X. X equals the rating of the Desperation keyword granting this ability."
			Note: This is a definition effect. (see J.3.4)

	I.3.5 Flash
		I.3.5.1 Flash grants the ability "Skip this attack's Enhance Step."
			Note: If an attack gains the Flash keyword after its Enhance Step has begun, this ability does not cause the Enhance Step to end. (see K.3.3)

	I.3.6 Multiple
		I.3.6.1 Multiple grants the ability "E Discard X momentum (minimum 1, maximum the Multiple rating): Add X cards from the top of your discard pile to your card pool face down as multiple copies of this attack. Add those attacks to the attack stack."
		I.3.6.2 A multiple copy of an attack copies all printed values of the original attack, except for the text box. The text box of a multiple copy is blank.
			Note: This is a copying definition effect. (see C.3.3.2)
			I.3.6.2.1 If a multiple copy would be added to a player's momentum, discard it instead.
			I.3.6.2.2 If a multiple copy would be created of a multiple copy, discard it instead.

	I.3.7 Powerful
		I.3.7.1 Powerful grants the ability "E Discard 1 or more momentum: This attack gets +X damage for each card added to your discard pile in order to pay the cost of this ability. X equals the rating of the Powerful keyword granting this ability."

	I.3.8 Reversal
		I.3.8.1 Reversal grants the ability "R [Hand] Add this card to your card pool: After your opponent's blocked attack resolves, play this card as a reversal to that attack."
		I.3.8.2 To play a card "as a reversal to an attack" is a classification given to cards played via a reversal ability, as well as some other effects.
			I.3.8.2.1 If a player has already attempted to play a card as a reversal to an attack, they cannot attempt to play another one, nor may they play a reversal ability.
				I.3.8.2.1.1 This rule must be explicitly overridden by an effect in order to ignore the limitation it sets.
	
	I.3.9 Safe
		I.3.9.1 Safe grants the ability "Attacks cannot be played as a reversal to this attack."

	I.3.10 Stun
		I.3.10.1 Stun grants the ability "E: Your opponent commits X foundations. X equals the rating of the Stun keyword granting this ability."

	I.3.11 Terrain
		I.3.11.1 Terrain grants the ability "After this card is added to your staging area, destroy all other terrain cards."
			Note: This ability is redundant with E.2.5. It is impossible for there to be any other terrain cards to destroy, but because it has a gameplay impact, Terrain is defined as an ability-granting keyword.

	I.3.12 Throw
		I.3.12.1 Throw grants the ability "If this attack is completely blocked, it still deals half damage (rounded up) during the Damage Step."

	I.3.13 Unique
		I.3.13.1 Unique grants the ability "After this card is added to your staging area, if there are 2 or more copies of it in your staging area, destroy 1 of them."
			Note: This ability is redundant with E.2.6. It is impossible for the "if" condition to be true, but because it has a gameplay impact, Unique is defined as an ability-granting keyword.





J. Effects
	An effect is a series of instructions that have some impact on the game. 

J.1 Effects - General

	J.1.1 When executing an effect, even if some parts of the effect are not possible, it still does as much as it can.
		Note: It is possible for an effect to be unable to do anything at all. This is not a restricting factor - it is legal to play an ability even if none of the instructions in its effect will be applicable and/or possible.


	J.1.2 Any decisions that are made as part of an effect, are made as they are reached during that effect's execution.		
		EXAMPLE: An ability reads "E Discard 1 card: Gain 2 vitality and commit 1 of your opponent's foundations." The player who plays this ability would not choose which foundation is committed until after they have paid the cost to play the ability, and executed (or attempted to execute) the "gain 2 vitality" portion of the effect. Additionally, as per J.1.1, they must commit a foundation if possible - it is not legal to "choose" a committed foundation and then fail to commit it. If the opponent has no ready foundations, that part of the effect simply fails and no choice is made. (In other words, UFS has no concept of "targeting")

	J.1.3 The execution of an effect may be interrupted or paused by a pause condition (see E.2), a fired effect (see J.3.2), or the opening of a response window (see H.2.3.2.2)

	J.1.4 The controller of an effect:
		J.1.4.1 The controller of an attached effect is the controller of the card with the associated continuous ability.
		J.1.4.2 The controller of an immediate effect is the player who played the associated ability.
		J.1.4.3 When an effect creates another effect, the new effect's controller is the controller of the effect that created it.
	
J.2 Effect States
	Effects can have one of three states, which define when that effect is active, and/or when it ends.

	J.2.1 An attached effect is the effect of a continuous ability on a card.
		J.2.1.1 An attached effect is active whenever the card it is on has a current state, and has the ability creating the effect.
		J.2.1.2 An attached effect of a continuous ability on a character card is not active unless that card is a player's starting character.

	J.2.2 A detached effect is an effect created by a played ability or some other effect, and is independent of the state of any particular card(s).
		J.2.2.1 A detached effect ends when either its execution completes, some point specified in the effect is reached, or in the case of a fired effect (see J.3.2) all possible opportunities for its firing event to occur have passed.
			
	J.2.3 An assigned effect is an effect created by a played ability or some other effect, and is specific to and dependent on the state of some chosen card.
		J.2.3.1 An assigned effect ends when either its execution completes, a point specified in the effect is reached, or the chosen card changes game zones.

	J.2.4 Effects may specify additional conditions that limit their activity.

J.3 Effect Classes
	Effects can be of one of five classes, which define how the effect is executed or otherwise applied to the game.

	J.3.1 An immediate effect is the effect of a played ability. 
		J.3.1.1 An immediate effect executes after the ability is successfully played.
		J.3.1.2 An immediate effect is always detached.
		J.3.1.3 Immediate effects will often create other effects, which could be of any state or class. "Floating effects" is a common term used to describe effects created by immediate effects that either execute at a later point in time, after a particular game event, or that modify, define, or change cards or game rules for a period of time (see J.7).
		J.3.1.4 The scope of an immediate effect of a form or enhance ability begins when the associated ability is announced.
		J.3.1.5 The scope of an immediate effect of a response ability begins with, and includes, the game event that the ability was played in reaction to.

	J.3.2 A fired effect is an effect that waits for a particular game event.
		J.3.2.1 A fired effect is executed after the specified game event occurs.
			Example: "E: If this attack deals damage, gain 2 vitality." creates a detached fired effect that waits for the current attack to deal damage. If the attack deals damage, it executes the "gain 2 vitality" instruction and ends. If the attack does not deal damage, the effect will end after the Damage Step as per J.2.2.1.
			J.3.2.1.1 Fired effects execute before a response window may be opened.
			J.3.2.1.2 If multiple fired effects are to be executed due to the same game event, the active player executes their fired effects in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player executes theirs in the order of their choosing.
		J.3.2.1 The default scope of a fired effect begins with, and includes, the game event that causes it to execute.
		J.3.2.2 A fired effect may execute once, or multiple times. In the latter case, a detached or assigned fired effect will specify a point at which it ends.
			Example: "If this attack deals damage, gain 2 vitality." is a fired effect that will execute once and then end. "For the rest of this turn, after 1 of your attacks deals damage, gain 2 vitality." will be active for the remainder of the turn, and execute once every time one of that player's attacks deals damage.
	
	J.3.3 A modifier effect applies some modification to card(s) that fulfill some given requirement(s).
		J.3.3.1 Modifier effects apply their modifications as soon as a card meets the requirement(s). This occurs before executing any fired effects awaiting the game event that caused the card to meet the requirements.
			J.3.3.1.1 If there are multiple modifier effects to apply, the active player applies theirs in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player applies theirs in the order of their choosing.
		J.3.3.2 A modifier effect may execute once, or multiple times. In the latter case, a detached or assigned modifier effect will specify a point at which it ends.
		Note: Modifier effects cannot apply the same modification to a card multiple times (see C.3.3.4.3).

	J.3.4 A definition effect sets a card's value(s) and properties to some specified number or text.
		J.3.4.1 A copying effect is a subclass of definition effects sets a card's values to be the same as the printed values of some other card.
		J.3.4.2 If a card has multiple copying effects, or multiple non-copying definition effects, applied to it, the active player applies theirs in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player applies theirs in the order of their choosing.
			Note: Copying definition effects are handled in layer 1 of a card's value calculations, while other definition effects are handled in layer 2 (see C.3.3). So, if there are both copying and non-copying definition effects applied to a card, the copying ones will always be applied first.
	
	J.3.5 A rule effect applies an additional rule to the game while it is active.
		J.3.5.1 A replacement effect is a subclass of rule effects that changes one act into another. Replacement effects include the word "instead", and may replace one instance of an event, or several of them over some specified timespan.
		J.3.5.2 If applicable, the handling of a rule effect occurs before any other effects are applied or executed.
			J.3.5.2.1 If there are multiple rule effects that need to be handled at the same time, the active player handles theirs in the order of their choosing, then the inactive player handles theirs in the order of their choosing.

	EXAMPLES - Classes of effects
		"Your high attacks get +2 damage for the rest of this turn." is a modifier effect.
		"Your opponent must play a foundation as their next form this turn or pass." is a rule effect.
		"After you discard this card as part of a cost, gain 2 vitality." is a fired effect.
		"Your next attack this turn gets +2 speed." is a modifier effect.
		"This card's difficulty is 3." is a non-copying definition effect.
		"The next time that foundation would be destroyed this turn, commit it instead." is a replacement rule effect.

		"E: Draw 1 card." is an ability whose immediate effect is to draw 1 card.
		The immediate effect of Multiple, among other things, creates assigned copying definition effects on the multiple copies.
		"Choose 1 of your opponent's foundations. That card does not ready during their next Ready Step." creates a rule effect.
		"After you block with this card, the blocked attack deals no damage during the Damage Step." is a fired effect that creates a rule effect.
		The immediate effect of Breaker creates a modifier effect.

J.4 Referencing Values
	
	J.4.1 Some effects will have a time frame, called its scope, which defines how far back in the game to look for a card's property or value when that effect calls for it.
		J.4.1.1 If an effect that has a scope creates another effect, that new effect's scope begins at the same time as that of the effect that created it. This supercedes the default scopes laid out in J.3.

	J.4.2 When an effect references a card value:
		J.4.2.1 If an effect requires a printed value from a card that does not have that value printed on it, use zero if it is a numerical value, and treat it as a "null" otherwise.
			Note: A "null" value may cause an effect instruction to be non-executable.
		J.4.2.1 If the card has not changed game zones or publicity during the effect's scope, use that card's current values.
		J.4.2.2 If the card has changed game zones or publicity during the effect's scope, use the last value the card had in the first zone in which it had a current state.
			Example: Player A activates the ability "E Destroy 1 foundation: Your attack gets +X damage. X equals the difficulty of the destroyed foundation." To pay the cost, he destroyed a face down foundation. When the effect executes and calculates X, that foundation is now in the discard pile face up. However, instead of X being equal to the difficulty on the foundation sitting in the discard pile, X will be 0. This is because the first zone the foundation had a current state in is the staging area, and at that time its difficulty was null/0 because it was a face down foundation.

	J.4.3 If an effect includes a reference to X:
		J.4.3.1 If X was defined upon playing an ability that began the effects scope, use that value for X.
		J.4.3.2 Otherwise, X may be defined within the effect.
		J.4.3.3 If neither of the above are true, the player whose effect it is chooses any valid value for X the first time it is referenced.
		J.4.3.4 X must be a non-negative whole number. If it would be negative, it is 0 instead. If it would not be a whole number, and the definition does not specify which way to round it, round it up.

	J.4.4 If one of a character's vital statistics is referenced by an effect and that value is question marks, players choose the values of their opponent's question marks.

J.5 Interacting With Cards

	J.5.1 To destroy a card is to add it to the discard pile from the staging area.
	
	J.5.2 To flip a card is to turn a face up card in the staging area face down.
		J.5.2.1 To unflip a card is to turn a face down card in the staging area face up.

	J.5.3 To seal a card is to create the assigned rule effect "That card has no abilities for the rest of this turn."

	J.5.4 In the case of a fired effect, or the immediate effect of a response ability, if a card involved in the game event at the start of its scope has changed zones since that game event concluded but before the effect begins to execute, the effect cannot interact with that card.
		Example: Player A plays a foundation that has the ability "R [Card Pool] Discard 1 momentum: After you play this card, add it to your staging area." She activates this ability and executes its effect. Player B then plays the ability "R Destroy: After your opponent plays a foundation, remove it from the game.". However, since player A's foundation has changed zones in between the event "Your opponent plays a foundation" and the execution of player B's effect, that effect fails to remove the foundation from the game.

J.6 Static Effects
	A static effect is a term used to describe the effect of a continuous ability that is active only while the card it is found on is in a particular zone.
		J.6.1 Interacting with a static effect on a card is limited to changing game zones or for the ability text to be removed.

J.7 Floating Effects
	A floating effect is a term to describe an effect that will execute in the future or one that is active after the card the effect was found on has left a particular zone (see J.3.1.3).

	



K. Instruction Glossary
	
This section covers a variety of implications, descriptions, and supporting rules for terms and phrases that may be found in the instructions of a cost, effect, or in the description of a game event.

K.1 Conflict Resolution
	K.1.1 If the instructions of an effect directly conflict with the game rules, the effect takes precedence.
	K.1.2 Effects that prohibit (using "can't", "does not", "has no", "deals no" etc.) take precedence in any conflict.
	K.1.3 If an instruction requires both players to do the same thing at once, the player whose effect it is decides which order the players do it in.
	K.1.4 If multiple cards are added to a player's discard pile at the same time, that player chooses which order they are added in.

K.2 Implications
	Unless specified otherwise, the following things are implied:

	K.2.1 A reference or instruction to discard a card means to discard a card from the hand.
	K.2.2 An instruction for a player to interact with card(s) means cards that player controls.
	K.2.3 An instruction for a player to interact with card(s) allows them to choose which card(s) if there are multiple options.
	K.2.4 An instruction for a player to interact with their opponent's card(s) means for them to choose which card(s) if applicable, and then the opponent executes the interaction if applicable.
	K.2.5 If an effect's instruction includes an option, the player whose effect it is chooses one of the options.
	K.2.6 Any reference to a player's character(s), foundation(s) or asset(s) means card(s) of that type in their staging area.
	K.2.7 A reference to a player's character refers to their starting character.
	K.2.8 If an assigned fired effect on a card in the card pool awaits the event "During the End Phase," it executes before that card is cleared from the card pool during the current turn's End Phase.
	K.2.9 If an instruction forces a phase or step to end, this does not override F.4.1. That phase or step ends as soon as the conditions of F.4.1 are met.	
	K.2.10 If an instruction forces a player to "draw up to" a specified number of cards, they draw X cards in a single action, where X is equal to the specified number minus the number of cards in their hand.
	K.2.11 If an effect disallows a player from playing a card or ability, that player may not initiate an attempt to play that card or ability.
	K.2.12 If an effect disallows a player from blocking an attack with certain zone(s), (including effects that prevent partial or complete blocking) that player cannot initiate an attempt to block with a card with one of the affected block zones.
	
K.3 Effect Limitations
	
	K.3.1 A player's vitality may not exceed their character's maximum vitality.
		K.3.1.1 If an effect would increase a player's vitality above its maximum, it increases it to its maximum instead.
			Note: If the player was already at their maximum vitality, the instruction to gain vitality fails (The player does not "gain 0 vitality").
	K.3.2 No card may have two instances of the same resource symbol.
	K.3.3 If a rule effect instructs for some phase(s) or step(s) to be skipped or re-ordered, it must be active before the start of the first affected phase or step, or else that instruction fails to execute.
	
K.4 Definitions

	K.4.1 "This card", "that card", "this ability" and "that ability" refer only to the specific instance of the card or ability being referenced. Other copies of that card or ability are not included or affected.
	
	K.4.2 A copy of a card is a card with the same name.
		K.4.2.1 Cards with no name are not copies of each other.
	
	K.4.3 A copy of an ability is an ability with the same cost and effect on a copy of the same card.
	
	K.4.4 "This attack" refers to the attack currently in its attack sequence.
		K.4.4.1 "Your attack" and "Your opponent's attack" refer to "this attack" with the added requirement of being one of the effect's controller's attacks, or one of their opponent's attacks, respectively.
		K.4.4.2 "This attack", when it appears in an attached effect, refers only to the attack the associated continuous ability is on, while it is undergoing an attack sequence.
	
	K.4.5 An "if" or "you may" condition applies that condition to the remainder of the sentence it is in.
		EXAMPLE: An effect reads "Gain 3 vitality. If you are at your maximum vitality, draw 2 cards and discard 1 card. Remove this card from the game during the End Phase." The player whose effect this is would gain 3 vitality, and then only if they are at their maximum vitality, they draw 2 cards and discard 1. Then, regardless of whether they were at their maximum vitality or not, the card would have the remove from game effect assigned to it.
		EXAMPLE: Sword Breaker reads, "E Discard the top 2 cards of your opponent's deck: If both cards discarded were foundations, you may add the first attack you played this turn from your card pool to your momentum and this attack gets Multiple: 1." If a player chooses not to add the first attack they played to their momentum, Sword Breaker will not get Multiple: 1.
	
	K.4.6 A "bonus" is the addition of some number to a card value. A "penalty" is the subtraction of some number to a card value.
		Note: In other words, bonuses and penalties are instructions of the form "this attack gets +2 damage", "your next attack gets -2 difficulty", etc. Definition effects or instructions to return a value to its printed value are not bonuses or penalties.
	
	K.4.7 With n being some number, a "(minimum n)" or "(maximum n)" appearing after a bonus or penalty provides a floor or ceiling respectively to the value being modified.
		EXAMPLE: Player A has an attack whose damage is currently 3. Player B plays the ability "E Commit: Your opponent's attack gets -3 damage (minimum 1)." This ability will only be able to reduce Player A's attack's damage to 1, because of the "(minimum 1)".
	
	K.4.8 With n being some number, a "(minimum n)" or "(maximum n)" appearing after a definition of X (or some other variable number) provides a floor or ceiling respectively for that number.
	
	K.4.9 A player's "next attack" is the next attack they attempt to play, or the next attack of theirs to enter an attack sequence, whichever comes first.
		Note: As per G.2.1.3.3.1, this does not include attack cards played as blocks.
		K.4.9.1 A player's "first attack", "second attack", and so on is the first/second/etc. attack within the given timeframe that matches the criteria for "next attack" in K.4.9.
		
	K.4.10 A card that a player "could normally play" is one that meets the resource symbol requirements enforced by E.4.1.2.
		Note: This is the only requirement that must be met.
	
	K.4.11 An abilty counts as an ability that causes a result if its immediate effect (or an effect created by it) could lead to that result under any circumstance.
		Example: "E Commit: If this attack deals damage, draw 1 card." is an ability that draws cards.
		Example: "E Commit: This attack gets +2 or -2 speed." is an ability that increases speed, and also an ability that decreases speed.
		Example: "E Commit: Return this attack to its printed damage" is an ability that increases damage, and also an ability that decreases damage.
		
	K.4.12 "During an attack" means to be within an attack sequence.

	K.4.13 A reference to a "preceding" card in the card pool refers to the immediately preceding card only.

	K.4.14 If a card "ignores progressive difficulty", it does not receive added difficulty in E.4.6.2 when in the process of playing it.

	K.4.15 If a card "does not count towards progressive difficulty", it does not count as a card in the card pool for the purposes of E.4.6.2 when playing other cards.

	K.4.16 A "<card type> ability" or "<card type> effect" is an ability on a card of that type, or an effect of such an ability.

	K.4.17 If an attack is "unblockable", the defending player may not attempt to block it in step G.2.1, and its block status becomes "not blocked" in G.2.2 regardless of any effect that would cause it to be blocked. 
	
	K.4.18 An effect that references "<trait> and <trait>" card(s) reefers to card(s) that have all of the listed traits. 
		Example: "Your Fire and Good attacks get +1 damage for the rest of this turn." applies only to attacks with both the Fire and Good resource symbols.
	
	K.4.19 An effect that references "<trait> or <trait>" card(s) refers to card(s) that have any of the listed traits. The controller of the effect does not have to choose one of them.

	K.4.20 A card with a "printed blank text box" is a face up card with no printed keywords or printed abilities.

	K.4.21 To "search" a game zone is to look through all cards in that zone, including private and unknown cards. 

	K.4.22 If an effect or game event related to the act of playing of a card's ability references that card's state, use the state of the card when the attempt to play the ability was initiated.
		Example: If an ability on an action card in the hand is played, fired effects with the event "After a player plays an ability on a card in their hand, ..." will execute even though the action card in question is no longer in the hand.

K.5 Additional Instructions
	
	K.5.1 If a player reveals a private or unknown card, it is revealed until the effect that revealed it completes its execution, and the opponent (if private) or both players (if unknown) have had a chance to read the card.
	K.5.2 If a player searches their deck for a card, they must reveal the card they choose if any, and shuffle the deck afterwards.
	K.5.3 If an instruction removes more cards from a player's deck than are in the deck, that player removes the cards in their deck, cycles (see E.2.2), and then removes the remaining cards.
	K.5.4 If an effect requires a player to name a card, if they are able to uniquely identify it via its other properties, that is also sufficient.

K.6 Special Effects

	K.6.1 A detached effect that applies a modification or otherwise affects "multiple copies of this attack" is treated as an assigned effect to the current attack.
		Note: This means that the effect's instructions do not fail if it is created before any multiple copies exist. The multiple copies will receive any modification or other impact as soon as they are added to the attack stack.
	K.6.2 An effect that allows a player to play or block with a card "as though it were in your hand" allows the card to be played (or played as a block) at any time a card from the hand could normally be played (or played as a block).





L. Miscellaneous

L.1 The Infinity Symbol
	Some cards have an infinity symbol in place of one or more resources symbols. This symbol has special rules associated with it:

	L.1.1 The infinity symbol is not a resource symbol.
	L.1.2 Whenever a card in a zone other than the discard pile gains a current state, for each infinity symbol on it, the player whose card it is chooses a resource symbol to take its place. That card retains that symbol until it either no longer has a current state, or enters the discard pile.
	L.1.3 Cards with the infinity symbol may be attempted to be played even if they do not meet the requirements in E.4.1.2, so long as it is possible to choose a symbol that allows the card to meet said requirements. The player whose card it is must choose one such symbol when the card enters the transitional zone in E.4.2.

L.2 Alternate Format Rules
	The following describe gameplay and deck construction rules for alternate formats. 
	Note: These formats may have other rules and procedures associated with them, outside of those that are in the scope of this document.

	L.2.1 In the Turbo format: 
		L.2.1.1 Decks must contain exactly 41 cards, instead of 60 or more.
		L.2.1.2 Instead of removing cards from the game during a mulligan (E.1.7), players set them aside, draw a new hand, then shuffle the cards set aside into their deck.
			L.2.1.2.1 After the regular mulligans, the player going second may set aside any number of cards from their hand, draw cards up to their character's handsize, then shuffle the cards set aside into their deck.
		L.2.1.3 When cycling the deck, (see E.2.2) players remove 5 cards from the game instead of 10.

	L.2.2 In Draft and Sealed formats:
		L.2.2.1 Decks must contain a minimum of 40 cards, instead of 60.
		L.2.2.2 Decks may contain any number of copies of the same card.
		L.2.2.3 When cycling the deck, (see E.2.2) players remove 5 cards from the game instead of 10.

	L.2.3 In Teams constructed formats:
		L.2.3.1 No character card may appear in more than one deck on a team.
		L.2.3.2 There may be no more than 8 total copies of any card between all of the team's decks combined.

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